It is a well-known fact that, when every product we create is great, a business will flourish. For the stakeholders of the natural fibre supply chain, access to good quality raw materials plays a vital role. Good quality raw materials will help reelers, weavers craft the best yarns and exquisite fabrics. To bring out the best natural fabric, a weaver must differentiate between high-quality and low-quality yarn.
A simple guide to help you understand the A to Z of yarns
A lengthy, continuous strand of entangled fibres is called yarn.. Textile yarn is manufactured with natural fibers from substances such as wool from sheep, silk from silkworms, or cotton and linen from plants. It can also be created with synthetic, or man-made, fibres derived from a variety of substances like nylon, acrylic, and polyester. Yarn is created by spinning. It can be spun manually or by a machine. Weaving yarn has a tight twist, a smooth exterior, and significant longitudinal strength.
Types of yarns
There are 3 types of basic yarns, which are further classified into different categories based on their characteristics and type of spinning.
Staple fibre yarn or Spun yarn
Staple fibre yarns are made by twisting together short fibres. Spun yarn is classified into various categories based on the direction of twist.
- S – twist yarn: Yarns are twisted in clockwise direction, the inclination angle of fibres makes the shape S
- Z – twist yarn: Yarns are twisted in anti-clockwise direction, the inclination angle of fibres makes the shape Z
- Zero twist or twist less yarn: Untwisted staple fibres are wrapped with hot water soluble filaments. During processing, these filaments are dissolved in hot water after weaving
Spun yarn is classified into various categories based on the degree of twist.
- Low twist yarn: Low twist yarn has a soft feel, poor lustre and less clarity in the structure. Fabrics made of this yarn have poor pilling properties
- Normal twist yarn: As per the spinning specifications, this yarn has a normal twist
- High twist yarn: With a higher degree of twist, this yarn enhances the fabric texture. It has better pilling properties with a good lustre
Based on the spinning technology used, the spun yarn can be classified into two groups:
- Ring frame yarn: Spindle-based method of spinning is used to create ring frame yarn
- Open-end yarn : A rotor spinning machine is used to create open-end yarn. It is considered cheaper than ring frame yarn
- Ply yarn : Ply yarns are made by twisting together 2 or more single yarns. There are 2 types of Ply yarns: Single-ply yarn and Multi-ply yarn
- Filament yarn: Filament yarns are made by winding mostly one or more short natural fibres
Yarns in woven fabric manufacturing
- Warp Yarn: Warp yarn is positioned in the longitudinal direction of a woven fabric and is used to make a weaving beam.
- Weft yarn: Weft yarn is used for cross interlacement through warp beams.
How to spot good yarns?
Magnificent fabrics can be weaved only with good quality yarn. Good quality yarn includes yarn that have
- No splits
- No breaks in the plies
- Devoid of colour bleed
How to determine the quality of yarn?
- The Twist Test
This test is used to determine the spiral disposition of the yarn . Twisting improves the strength of yarn, however too many twists places the fibres at the right angle to the axis of yarn, resulting in the decrease of yarn strength. Different twists are given to yarn, based on its use in the fabric. Standard warp twist is used to incorporate maximum twists for warp yarns.
- Parameters for yarn quality
Several parameters are used to ascertain the quality of different yarn types.
- Denier, Ne, Lea
Denier is used to determine the thickness of fibres or filaments used in the silk yarn. Greater the denier value, heavier, thicker and cheaper the yarn. Lesser the denier value, the lighter, thinner and more expensive the yarn. For cotton yarn it is called count and unit is Ne, it is used to express the size of the cotton yarn. It refers to the number of times the length of one pound of yarn can be divided by 840. For linen the thickness is measured as Lea
- Yarn elongation
The elongation of yarn is vital for weaving. Higher yarn elongation permits better ability to bear the tension and jerk during weaving processes.
- Degree of Hairiness
The degree of hairiness refers to the number of fibres protruding from the base of the yarn. Lesser value of hairiness, indicates yarns have lower chances of pilling.
Access to good yarns and more with ReshaMandi
ReshaMandi, with a vision to make India the powerhouse of natural fibre, is working with farmers, reelers, weavers, and retailers of the natural fibre ecosystem. It is empowering them by providing access to high-quality raw materials, inputs and creating means, and methods to enhance their incomes and transform them into entrepreneurs.
ReshaMandi has set up procurement centres across the country, ensuring there is never a dearth of scientifically graded yarns for the weavers. It offers them high-quality yarns at fair prices, as weavers can sell their products to ReshaMandi at the best prices, it also helps them to clear their inventory faster.
To access yarns at fair prices and to get good prices for your fabrics and sarees, download the ReshaMandi app for weavers.